Sermon 3031. 'The Shadow of a Great Rock'

(No. 3031)




"A man shall be as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land." Isaiah 32:2.

[Other Sermons by Mr. Spurgeon on previous portions of this verse, are as follows-No. 2856, Volume 49-OUR HIDING PLACE andNo. 1243, Volume 21-RIVERS OF WATER IN A DRY PLACE.]

EVEN in our usually temperate climate, we sometimes complain of the great heat, which is coolness itself compared with theterrible burning of Oriental lands. A journey through the Sahara Desert might make us long for even the heat of our hottestsummer, unbearable though it seems to us to be. With the hot sand beneath his feet from day to day, with not a tree and scarcelyso much as a bush within sight. With the sun pouring down torrents of heat as though he were full of wrath against the wayfarer,with water exceedingly scarce and what is to be obtained about as nauseous as one can conceive, the traveler through the wildernessfinds it to be a "weary land," indeed, and longs for the time when he shall once again see the cultivated fields and the landsthat flow with brooks and rivers!

Travelers tell us that when the heat has become so intense that every living creature seems to be exhausted-when birds, ifthere are any, droop their wings, and beasts lie down and pant out their very life-at such times they have been glad to seegreat rocks right in the center of the barren plain. And, creeping under their shadow, they have left it on record that theyhave found most refreshing coolness and have lifted up their hands in gratitude to God for the blessing of "the shadow ofa great rock in a weary land." Though I have never experienced to the same degree what these travelers report, I rememberone hot day in Northern Italy, when riding over a dry plain where the only living creatures seemed to be the lizards and theabundant flies which they were pursuing, and the myriads of mosquitoes that stung one almost to madness-a great rock was reallya source of solid comfort. Though we could afford time to rest only for a little while beneath its shadow, we gratefully rememberedit all day long and wished that we could have stayed until nightfall beneath the shadow of that "great rock in a weary land."

Writing under Divine Inspiration, the Prophet Isaiah describes the Lord Jesus Christ, in His Manhood, as being comparableto this great rock. In this wilderness life of ours, this wretched life apart from Him-to us pilgrims through this desertto the better land beyond-Christ is a great Rock and He casts a blessed shadow across our path in which we refresh ourselvesand renew our strength to go on our way rejoicing.

I shall try to bring out the meaning of the text by noticing, first, why our Lord may thus be compared to the shadow of agreat rock. Secondly, I shall show when He is especially refreshing to us and, thirdly, and practically, I shall ask, whatis our business with regard to Him?


We may remember concerning Him, in the first place, that, like a rock, He is always in the same place. There are some shadowswhich you can create artificially and carry with you. There have been shadows which have been cast by great trees, but thosetrees have been removed. And if the traveler, in passing over the same route, should expect to enjoy their cooling shade,he would be disappointed. But, the great rock remains just where it was when Abraham, Isaac and Jacob sheltered beneath it-andthe traveler, today, may do the same. It is just so with our Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed be His name, He has not shifted Hisposition! If any poor soul here wants to find Him, He is just where He used to be-that

is, He is waiting at the Mercy Seat to receive every soul that will come and trust Him. Jesus Christ is not far away fromany of you-He is so near that a prayer will reach Him, a sigh will find Him and a tear will get at His heart! Only turn yourdesires towards Him! Only say to Him, now, in the silence of your spirit, "Jesus, Master, cast Your shadow over my sin-burdenedhead. Protect my soul from the wrath of God and from the fierce heat of Hell!" Only ask this and it shall be given you, forJesus is still waiting to be gracious and ready to bless you even now!

He is like a rock, too, because His shadow is always there as well as Himself Wherever the sun and a rock are, there is sureto be a shadow. So, whenever God pours out the fierce beams of His wrath upon a sinner, let that sinner fly to Christ andhe shall find a shelter from that wrath! Whenever conscience oppresses you and reminds you of your guilt, depend upon it thatChrist has not lost His power to quiet conscience and to calm your fears. Sometimes a sinner fears that it is too late forhim to find peace in Christ, or, possibly, he thinks it is too soon, or that he has sinned away his day of grace. Ah, poorSoul, all these suggestions are Satan's lies! If you really desire to have Christ's love shed abroad in your heart, that isa proof that Christ has already fixed His love upon you! If your head is now beaten upon by the fierce sunlight of God's wrath,you may come and find a shelter in the great rock of Christ's atoning Sacrifice! If you will trust in Jesus, you shall havethe peace which only He can give-the peace which passes understanding. We rightly sing-

"Dear dying Lamb, Your precious blood

Shall never lose its power

Till all the ransomed Church of God

Is saved to sin no more"-

and they are not all saved yet-there are still some to be gathered and, therefore, Christ's blood has not yet lost its powerto cleanse from sin! And Christ, as a rock, casts His welcome shade over all who come to Him to be thus refreshed!

Our Lord may also be compared to the shadow of a great rock because the shadow of a great rock is broad. I remember the timewhen, after a long, hot and dusty walk, I found myself at the top of a considerable elevation where there is neither shrubnor tree-but a huge cross which someone has erected there. And I remember well how my friend and I tried to get under theshelter of that cross, but there was only room enough in the shadow for one of us. We both tried to get under the shadow,for it was terribly hot in the sunshine, but the cross could not give shelter to the two of us, so we had to take turns aslong as we waited on the hillside. But it is not so in the case of a great rock! The shadow there is sometimes so wide thatif a whole caravan shall wish to rest there free from the sun's heat, they may all come and shelter under it-travelers, camelsand all! So is it with my Master. He is no little Savior! He has already saved millions, but He is just as able to save unnumberedmillions more! If the shadow of His Cross could only screen one sinner, what a scramble many of you would make in order tobe that one. Yet I fear that the very freeness of the Divine Mercy makes many despise it, though it should not do so. If thewhole of us felt the heat of the sun of God's wrath in our conscience and we were all to come crowding to Jesus, we wouldnot hear Him say, "I cannot receive you all. I have not room for you all." If there were room in Christ for all but one, Ishould hear a cry from somewhere in this place, "O God, shut me not out, but receive me, even me!" Yet many of you are contentnot to get under the shadow of Christ though there is room there for you! There is room in Christ for the biggest sinner outof Hell! There is room for ten thousand times ten thousand sinners! There will be room for all of Adam's race who are everled to come and put their trust in Him! It is the shadow of a Great Rock and, therefore, it is a broad shadow!

Further, the shadow of a rock is free to all Nobody thinks of paying for a seat in the shadow of a rock, and nobody wouldwait to be asked to come under that shadow. No one would dream of needing preparation before sitting on the shady side ofa great rock. Everybody who is weary seeks the shelter-every man who is wiping the hot sweat from his brow comes and stretcheshimself to rest beneath that genial shade even without an invitation! In like manner, Jesus Christ is as free as the air toall who will trust in Him! You do not need to make any preparation for coming to Him and although many invitations are givento you to come to Christ, this is because of your unwillingness to come to Him-not because there are any hindrances on Hispart! When a soul is once brought to long for Christ, that soul may at once have Christ. The great difficulty is to make sinnersfeel their need of a Savior-they think that they do not need Him. They stand in the blazing sunshine and imagine that theywill never faint beneath that fierce heat. But when their strength begins to depart, they are willing to come under the shadowof the Great Rock and there it stands, just as it always did, and they are invited to come to it, after all their neglectof it, and find a refreshing shelter there. Does not this Truth of God comfort some poor soul in my audience? Are there notsome of you who have made the great mistake of supposing

that you had to grow better, or to do some good thing in order to get to Christ? Well, then, let me assure you that as freeas is the water in the drinking-fountain at the street corner, as free as is the air which enters into your lungs, so freeis the ever-gracious Savior to every guilty sinner who will but come and seek a shelter beneath this "shadow of a Great Rockin a weary land!"

Once again, our Lord is like a rock because His shadow is most refreshing. I do not know how true they are, but there aresome old country notions that certain trees give an unhealthy shade. I have been sometimes warned not to sit under such-and-sucha tree-if I did so, I would have a headache and I know not what evil besides! But this I do know- the shadow of Christ neverhurts anyone, but uniformly blesses in a thousand ways! When a man does but come and rest in Jesus, headaches and heartaches,as far as they have to do with moral and spiritual disorders, pass away. The believing man realizes that he is forgiven and,oh, what a blessed realization is that! Hear him sing-

"Now, oh joy! My sins are pardoned, Now I can, and do believe!"

And with that sense of pardoned sin comes a sense of perfect peace with God! The forgiven man feels a joy which he never knewbefore-not the wild joy in which he once delighted, which first intoxicated him and then left him depressed and heart-broken,but a joy like the course of a great river, increasing as it flows, widening and deepening as months and years roll on!

It is a blessed thing to get under the shadow of Christ. I cannot tell you all the happiness I have personally felt sinceI first believed in Jesus, many years ago. Amidst many struggles, and wars, and fights, I can bear my testimony that thereis no life like the life of one who trusts in Jesus! There is no happiness this side the grave that is comparable with thehappiness of living by faith upon the Crucified Redeemer! I do but speak what I know to be true when I recommend all youngpeople to come beneath the shadow of this Great Rock in the early part of their lives, that ever afterwards, even until life'slatest hour, they may have the shelter which that Rock will surely bring! Never did I meet a Christian who repented of havingtrusted in Christ! And never have I heard of one who, in his old age, said that he had made a mistake in relying upon Christas his Savior. Never have I sat by the bedside of the dying to receive the recantation of a saint who told me that salvationby Grace, through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, was all a deception, all a delusion! But often have these ears of mine heardexpiring songs as full of melody as the songs of angels, and heard declarations of peace and joy from departing Believersthat have made my heart leap and my eyes flash with joy at the very hearing! So much more deep and profound have been thejoy of those who uttered such words of holy exultation and delight!

I have just one more observation to make upon this part of our subject-our Lord is like "a great rock in a weary land" because,though it gives shade to others, that is because it bears the heat of the sun itself The rock is the interposing medium betweenthe burning sunbeams and the weary traveler. Here is a delightful picture of the mediatorial work of Christ. He puts Himselfbetween the wrath of God and us. The awful beams that streamed from the meridian sunshine of inflexible Justice concentratedall their fierce heat upon Christ and because they fell upon Him and were absorbed by Him, He now presents a cool and refreshingshade to all who come and trust in Him! Jesus suffered that we may not suffer. Jesus died that we may live. He was punishedin order that we may be forgiven. He was crushed to death beneath the heel of Divine Vengeance against sin in order that wemay be lifted up to Heaven by the hands of Infinite Mercy. Here, then, is the Gospel in miniature set before you! You can,in your mind's eye, see the Great Rock and its welcome shadow, the sun shining on the rock and the traveler protected by therock. Oh, that all of you who know not the Lord Jesus Christ would come to Him now! As you seek a shade from the sun whenhis beams are too hot for you to bear, so seek a shelter from the fierce rays of the sun of God's wrath! There is no shelterbut in Christ, but there is perfect protection in Him. To come to Him needs no long pilgrimage, no elaborate ceremonies-youcan sit in your pew and trust in Jesus. There is life in a single look at Him! As soon as you trust in Him-

"The great transaction's done!" And beneath the shadow of that Rock your spirit is secure forever!


Unto them that believe, Jesus is always precious, but there are times when He is peculiarly so. This was the case with themwhen they were under conviction of sin. What memories that expression awakens in some of us-"conviction of

sin!" Why, it was to some of us a very martyrdom! I think it would have been less painful to have been burned alive at thestake than to have passed through those horrors and depressions of spirit which some of us passed through while we were seekingpardon, but seeking it in the wrong way. When God makes the conscience a target for His sharp arrows. When the ten great gunsof the Law are all fired at the sinner's soul. When shot after shot goes tearing through the man's false peace, blowing hisself-confidence to pieces and leaving him wounded, mangled and maimed. When the man cries out in his agony, "What shal1 Ido to find salvation? How shall I get rid of sin? God is righteously angry with me, how shall I appease His wrath? I fearthat Hell will be my everlasting portion, how can I escape that awful doom?"-it is then that Christ becomes "the shadow ofa great rock in a weary land." Sinners will never come to Jesus while they have anything of their own to rely upon-so maythe lord strip us and bring us down to absolute bankruptcy and beggary as far as everything of our own is concerned! For thenwe shall look to Jesus and find everything in Him! So, in the time of conviction of sin, when the ten-thonged whip of theLaw falls upon a man's conscience, Christ is indeed precious!

So too, dear Friends, in times of trial Believers find the shadow of this Great Rock to be most delightful and refreshing.I suppose that most of us, if not all, have had our trials. The dear child whom we loved so fondly has sickened and died.The husband or the wife, the delight of our eyes, has been borne away to the silent tomb. Possibly we were slandered by acruel enemy, or forsaken by a false friend in whom we had implicitly trusted. It may be that our house was burned, or ourbusiness proved a failure and that losses followed on the heels of losses like Job's messengers with evil tidings. Yes, but,beloved Believer, in all these times of trial you have found Christ to be a blessed Comforter! And I will venture to say thatthe sharper your affliction has been, the sweeter has Christ been to you. I wonder how some people who have many troublescan get on without Christ? I marvel at you, consumptive young woman, and you, hard-working man with a growing family, tryingto do without the consolations of our blessed Savior! I know that some people have the notion that religion is not meant forthe poorest of the poor, but if there are any people whom it suits best, surely it is these! If it does not fill the cupboard,it makes the heart content with what it has! If it does not put broadcloth on the back, it makes the wearer satisfied withfustian! There is no one like Christ for the poor, and the needy, and the sick, and the sorrowing. He is, indeed, as "theshadow of a great rock in a weary land" to all such poor tried souls.

Let me also remind you that we shall know more about the refreshing shade of Christ when we come to die. Not many weeks hencesome of us must die. When there is such a large number of people gathered together, some of them must soon die. But all ofus must, before long, gather up our feet in the bed and die-

"Our fathers' God to meet."

What must it be to die without a Savior? A shiver runs through my frame as I think of it. To die without a hope, how sad!But to die trusting in Christ, how blessed! I remember standing in the pulpit one sultry summer's afternoon, preaching ofthe joys of Heaven and there was one woman's eyes that specially caught mine as I was preaching. I knew not why it was, butit seemed to fascinate me. And as I spoke of Heaven, she seemed to drink in every word, and her eyes flashed back again thethoughts I uttered. She seemed to lead me on to speak more and more of the streets of gold and the gates of pearl till, suddenly,her eyes appeared to me to be too fixed-and at last it struck me that while I had been talking of Heaven, she had gone there.I paused and asked if someone in the pew would kindly see whether the friend sitting there was not dead and, in a moment,her husband said, "She is dead, Sir." I had known her long as a consistent Christian woman and, as I stood there, I half wishedthat I could have changed places with her! There was not a sigh, nor a tear. She seemed to drink in the thoughts of Heavenand then straightway to go and enjoy it! If such a sudden departure is not ours, it will be much like it-we shall close oureyes on earth and open them in Heaven beneath the shadow of that Great Rock! In Heaven, they sit beneath Christ's shadow,and on earth we will do the same. So we will still sing-

"Where is the shadow of that Rock

That from the sun defends Your flock?

Gladly would I feed among Your sheep,

Among them rest, among them sleep." But, my dear Hearers, what will it be to have the shelter of Christ in the Day of Judgment?Wecan never form right ideas of what that Day of Judgment will be-

"That day of wrath, that dreadful day

When Heaven and earth shallpass away"-

and weeping and wailing shall be the prelude to the sitting of the Judge upon the Great White Throne! Then, when every eyeshall see Him and they, also, who pierced Him, it will be a blessed thing to have Him as the Rock of Ages to hide us fromthe wrath of that tremendous day-

"Day of judgment, day of wonders!

Hark, the trumpet's awful sound,

Louder than a thousand thunders,

Shakes the vast creation round!

How the summons

Will the sinner's heart confound!

See the Judge our nature wearing,

Clothed in majesty Divine!

You who long for His appearing,

Then shall say, 'This God is mine!'

Gracious Savor!

Own me in that day for Thine!" III. Now lastly, if these things are so, and they are so, WHAT IS OUR BUSINESS?

Our business is to get under this shadow if we are not already under it What is the use of a shadow to those who stand inthe blazing sunshine? There is many a soul that stands in the sunshine longer than it needs and so feels faint and weary.And there are some who have thus got such a sunstroke as they will never lose this side of Heaven. I mean that they have togo doubting and fearing all their spiritual life because they were so long before they trusted in Christ. I know that onlythe Holy Spirit can bring a sinner under this blessed shadow, but how base must be the human heart when it will not come andtake what Christ so freely provides! Why will you die? Why will you perish when you need not? There is a shadow-why will youstand in the fierce light of the sun? All the bells of Heaven are ringing out, "Come and welcome!" All the angels of God aresinging, "Come and welcome! Come and welcome!" From this open Book, from the Gospel preached by one of God's ministers tonight,there sounds this message, "Come and trust in the Incarnate Son of God!" I wish I knew how to put it in more melting tones,but it needs the Holy Spirit to bring it home to your hearts. Dear trembler, waverer, halting between two opinions, you whohave so long put off coming to Christ, come now! I ask again, why do you continue to stand beneath the wrath of God when youneed not linger there a moment longer?

"Come to Jesus,

Come to Jesus, Sinner, come!" And when you have come, take care to tell others what you have discovered. Do not let any poorsoul be without the knowledge of the way of salvation so far as you can tell it. Tell to those who are round about you, yourexperience of the comforts of true religion! This is the way to gather jewels for the Redeemer's crown. If you find that Christdeceives you, let us know, for, as honest men, we would not like to go on telling an idle tale. But if you find Him true.If He comforts you, and blesses you, do bear your testimony to others, for then, perhaps your child, your wife, your brother,your neighbor may come and trust Him too! I will be bound for Him that He will reject none of you who come to Him and I willbe a bondsman for Him for another thing, that if you once have Him as your Savior, you will never grow weary of Him! You willsay that it was the best day that ever dawned upon you when you gave your heart to the Crucified Christ, who, on Calvary'sCross, made the one Sacrifice for sin forever! Oh, yield your heart to Him! I see Him standing there with those pierced handsof His! He knocks softly at your heart's door-

"Admit Him, for the human breast

Never entertained so kind a guest

Admit Him, before His anger burns,

His feet depart, and never returns!

Admit Him, or the hour's at hand

When at His door denied you'll stand." By the love of God in Christ Jesus, hold out no longer! Young man, I beseech you bythe precious blood of Christ, give yourself to Him! Have you done it? Do you trust Him wholly? Then, rejoice and sing, youseraphs, and let Heaven be

glad, for Christ sees the reward of His soul-travail, for a child is born in His House tonight that shall live to praise Him,both here and throughout eternity!

May the Lord bless everyone here, and His shall be the glory forever. Amen.


Verse 17. Think not that I am came to destroy the Law, or the Prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill The life-workand words of Christ are not an improvement of the Old Testament, or a doing away of it. It stands fast and firm, fulfilled,carried to perfection, filled to the fullest in Christ!

18, 19. For verily Isay unto you, TillHeaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shallin no wise pass away from theLaw till all is fulfilled. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shallbe called the least in the Kingdom of Heaven: but whoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the Kingdomof Heaven. It is vain to teach the commandments without first doing them. The doing must always precede the teaching. If aman's example cannot be safely followed, it will be unsafe to trust his words.

20. For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, you shallin no case enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. The scribes and Pharisees were supposed to be righteous beyond all others. "No,"says Christ, "you must go beyond them." They were, after all, superficial, flimsy, pretentious, unreal in their righteousness-andwe must have a far nobler character than they ever attained, or we "shall in no case enter into the Kingdom of Heaven."

21. You have heard that it was said by them of old time, You shall not kill; and whoever shall kill shall be in danger ofthe judgment.This is a proof that Christ did not come to abolish the Law, or to abate its demands in any degree whatever.

22. But I say unto you. Oh, what Divine dignity there is in this majestic Person whose ipse dixit i s to shift all the sayingsof the ages! He claims authority to speak, even though He should contradict all the Rabbis and all the learned men that wentbefore Him-"I say unto you."

22. That whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whoever shall say to hisbrother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whoever shall say, You fool, shall be in danger of Hell fire. Christhere shows us that the commandment, "You shall not kill," deals with anger, with angry words, with words of cursing, withwords of derision-for all these are killing things, hurting and wounding things-and the passion of anger is forbidden underthe command, "You shall not kill." Men have not thought so, but it really is so, for he who is angry with his brother is amurderer! There is the spirit, the essence of that which leads to murder in the passion which breeds malice and revenge. TheLaw of God is spiritual-it touches the emotions, the thoughts, the desires as well as the words and actions of men. If I desireill for a man, I have within me that which would desire his death-and what is that, after all, but murder in the heart? Howstrict is this Law, and yet how just and right!

23, 24. Therefore if you bring your gift to the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you; leavethere your gift before the altar, and go your way; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.Itis said that in India there is a complete divorce of religion from morality, so that a man may be supposed to be eminentlyreligious even while living in the utmost filthiness and vice. But it must never be so among us. We must never imagine thatGod can accept an offering from us while we harbor any enmity in our hearts. Perhaps, after reading this passage, you say,"If I had anything against my brother, I would go to him at once, and seek to be reconciled to him." That would be quite right,but you must go further than that, for Christ says, "If you bring your gift to the altar, and there remember that your brotherhas anything against you." It is much more easy to go to the man who has wronged you than to the one whom you have wronged.Yet the second is evidently the clearer duty, and should be attended to at once-neither can we expect the Lord to attend tous unless we attend to this duty.

25, 26. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver you tothe judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. Verily Isay unto you, You shall by no meanscome out till you have paid the uttermost farthing. There is nothing like ending disputes at once, before the

rancor grows and your adversary becomes determined to push you to extremes. Oh, for more of that spirit of yielding! You knowhow people say, "If you tread on a worm: it will turn." But, Brothers and Sisters, a worm is not an example for a Christian,even if the poor wounded creature does turn toward you in its agony. If you turn, turn to kiss the hand that smites you, andto do good to them that evilly treat you!

27, 28. You have heard that it was said by them of old time, You shall not commit adultery: but I say unto you, That whoeverlooks on a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart So that the unholy desire, the lasciviousglance, everything that approximates towards licentiousness is here condemned-and Christ is proved to be not the Destroyerof the Law, but the Confirmer of it! See how He shows that the commandment is exceedingly broad, wide as the canopy of Heaven,all-embracing. How sternly it condemns us all and how well it becomes us to fall down at the feet of the God of Infinite Mercyand seek His forgiveness-

"'Tis mercy-mercy we implore,

We would Your pity move-

Your Grace is an exhaustless store,

And You, Yourself, are Love." 29, 30. And if your right eye offends you, pluck it out, and cast it from you: for it is profitablefor you that one of your members should perish, and not that your whole body should be cast into Hell And if your right handoffends you, cut it off, and cast it from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members should perish, and notthat your whole body should be cast into Hell Give up the dearest, choicest and apparently most necessary thing if it leadsyou into sin. The same rule that bids you avoid sin, bids you also avoid all that leads to sin. If adultery is forbidden,so also is that glance with which the sin usually begins. We are to turn away our eyes from beholding that which leads towardssin and we are not to touch or taste that which would readily lead us into iniquity. Oh, that we had sufficient decision ofcharacter to make short work of everything which tends towards evil! Many persons, when their right eye offends them, puta green shade over it. And when their right hand offends them, they tie it up in a sling. But that is not obeying the commandof Christ. He charges you to get rid of everything that would lead you wrong-make a clean sweep of it. You are wrong enoughat your best, so do not permit anything to appertain to you which would lead you still further astray,

31, 32. It has been said, Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: but Isay unto you, Thatwhoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication. Which is a sufficient and justifiable reason for divorce.

32. Causes her to commit adultery: and whoever shall marry her that is divorced. That is to say, who is divorced without sufficientcause.

32. Commits adultery.Among the Jews, divorce was the easiest thing in the world. A man might, in a pet, utter words whichwould divorce his wife. The Savior abolished that evil once and for all and made divorce a crime, as it always is "savingfor the cause of fornication."

33, 34. Again, you have heard that it has been said by them of old time, You shall not forswear yourself, but shall performunto the Lord your oaths: but I say unto you, Swear not at all Christ thus abolishes the whole system of swearing, as it oughtto be abolished in every place. And He goes on to show that He did not mean merely unclean, false oaths, or oaths taken assome men take them blasphemously, but every form and kind of oath, for He says, "Swear not at


34-37. Neither by Heaven; for it is God's Throne: nor by the earth; for it is His footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for itis the city of the great King. Neither shall you swear by your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black But letyour communication be, Yes, yes. No, no: for whatever is more than these comes of evil If words mean anything, this commandof Christ is an utter abolishment of oaths taken before magistrates as well as everywhere else. I can make nothing else outof it-indeed, it must mean that because Christ contrasts His teaching with that of former ages-"It has been said by them ofold time, You shall not forswear yourself, but shall perform unto the Lord your oaths: but I say unto you, Swear not at all."A man who cannot be believed upon his word, certainly cannot be believed upon his oath and, usually, when a man tells a lie,the next thing he does is swear to it. When Peter denied his Master, the next thing he did was to curse and to swear, becausehe thought it likely that they would not imagine that he was a follower of Christ if

he did curse and swear. So he gave that as a pretty clear proof that he had not been with Christ and was not one of His disciples.Alas, that we should need anything beside "Yes, yes," and, "No, no!"

38-43. You have heard that it has been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: but Isay unto you, That you resistnot evil: but whoever shall smite you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. And ifany man will sue you at the Law,and take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. And whoever shall compel you to go a mile, go with him two. Give tohim that asks you, and from him that would borrow of you turn not you away. You have heard that it has been said, You shalllove your neighbor, and hate your enemy. There are many who do the second of those two things, but not the first.

44, 45. But Isay unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for themwhich despitefully use you, and persecute you; that you may be the children of your Father which is in Heaven: for He makesHis sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust God constantly does that which manypeople regard almost as a crime, namely, doing good to the undeserving. It is the very genius of Christianity to help thosewho are utterly unworthy-to be kind and generous even to those who are pretty certain to repay us with ingratitude and malice.

46-48. For if you love them which love you, what reward have you? Do not even the publicans the same? And if you salute yourbrethren only, what do you more than others? Do not even the publicans so? Be you therefore perfect, even as your Father whichis in Heaven is perfect Stretch towards the highest conceivable standard and be not satisfied till you reach it.